AQA Geography GCSE – The Changing Economic World – Paper Two – Section B

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16.1 Our unequal world:

Development: This means positive change that makes things better. It usually means that people’s standard of living and quality of life will improve.

The development gap is the difference in standard of living between the world’s richest and poorest countries.

Measuring Development:

-Gross National Income (GNI): GNI is an economic measure of development. It is the total value of goods and services produced by a country and the money earned and paid to other countries. It is expressed as per head of the population

Some countries (NEEs) have begun to experience higher rates of economic development/

-Human Development Index (HDI): HDI is a social measure that expressed in values 0-1, where 1 is the highest. It considers: Life expectancy at birth, Number of education and GNI per head.

16.2 Measuring Development:

Birth Rate: As a country develops, women become more educated and want a career. They marry later and have fewer children.

Death Rate: Developed countries tend to have older populations resulting in a high death rate. Less developed countries may have very low death rates because proportionally more young people have survived their early years.

Infant Mortality: A useful measure of a country’s health care system

Literacy Rate: A high literacy rate means a good education system.

Birth rate: Low High
Death rate: Depends on the ages of the population  and health care availability Depends on the ages of the population  and health care availability
Infant Mortality rate: Low High
Literacy rate: High Low


Country GNI Per Head ($) HDI Birth rate (Per 100 per year) Death rate (Per 1000 per year) Infant mortality (per 1000 live births per year) Literacy Rate
Nigeria 2970 0.514 37.64 12.90 72.70 59.6
UK 43430 0.907 12.17 9.35 4.38 99.0


Limitations of economic and social measures: A single measure of development can give a false picture as it gives the average for the whole country. Other facts limit the usefulness of development measures: Data could be out of date, unreliable or hard to collect. Data may not be take into account subsistence of informal economies.


16.3 The Demographic Transition Model:

The Demographic Transition Model (DTM) shows changes over time in the population of a country.

The total population responds to variations in birth and death rates (Natural Change) It is also affected by migration but migration is not shown on the DTM

As a country becomes more developed, its population characteristics changes.

Stage One: High birth rate, High death rate. Both fluctuate because of disease, famine and war. The population is fairly stable. (Traditional rainforest tribes)

Stage Two: Death rate decreases, Birth rate remains high. The population grows. (LIC Countries)

Stage Three: Birth rate drops rapidly; Death rate continues to decrease but more slowly. Population still grows but not as fast. (NEE Countries)

Stage Four: Low birth rate, low death rate, Birth rate can fluctuate depending on the economic situation. (HIC)

Stage Five: Birth rate falls below death rate, death rate increases slightly because of ageing population. Population decreases unless immigration replaces the retired population. (HIC)

16.5 Causes of uneven development


Some countries are landlocked, which means that are cut off from seaborne trade which is important for economic growth.

-Climate-related diseases and pests affect the ability of the population to stay healthy enough to work.

-Extreme weather, such as droughts and floods, can slow development and it can be costly to repair damaged infrastructure.

-Lack of clean water can affect farming and the health of workers

Economic: (Trade)

-Rich countries and large international companies want to pay as little as possible for their raw materials – many of which come from LICs

-Supply of raw materials often outstrips demand, which keeps prices low.

-Processing materials (which adds value) takes place in richer countries

-The rich countries get richer and the poorer countries are less able to develop

-LICs and NEEs have traditionally exported primary goods (materials that don’t need processing, for example; agriculture, fishing, mining, and forestry) although in the last 20 years, some have developed manufacturing. Manufactured products now make up about 80% of NEE exports.

-The price of raw materials fluctuates a lot (e.g copper)


Historical: (Colonialism)

-Almost all of the wealth produced during the colonial period (around 1650-1950) went to European powers

-Since 1950 former European colonies have gained independence

-Independence has often been a difficult process, resulting in civil wars and political struggles for power, which has continued to hold back development.

16.6 Wealth and health

Imbalances between rich and poor: – Imbalances exist between countries. Some countries have lower levels of development and a poorer quality of life than others.

Imbalances also exist within countries. Areas of considerable poverty can be found in rich countries, and great wealth in areas of poor countries.

Disparities in wealth: – In 2014, the fastest growth of wealth was in North America, which now holds 35% of total global wealth.

-Of the NEEs, China has recorded the highest growth since 2000

-Africa’s share of global wealth remains very small (about 1%)

Disparities in Health:

Low Income Countries:

-Children under 15 years’ account for 4 in every 10 deaths. The over 70s account for only 2 in 10 deaths

-Complications of childbirth are one of the main causes of death amongst under 5 years old.

-Infectious diseases are the main cause of death. For example, lung infections, HIV and malaria.

High Income Countries:

-The over 70s account for 7 in every 10 deaths

-Main causes of death are chronic diseases. For example, heart disease or cancer.

-Lungs infections are the only main infectious cause of death

-Only 1 in every 100 deaths is among children under 15 years.







16.7 Migration:

Migration is the movement of people from place to place. It can be voluntary or forced. International migration is a consequence of uneven development, as people seek to improve their quality of life

Economic migrant – a person who moves voluntarily to seek a better life, such as a better-paid job

Refugee – A person forced to move from their country of origin, often as a result of civil war or a natural disaster.

Displaced person – A person forced to move from their home but who stays in their country of origin.

Immigrant – A person who moves into a country

Emigrant – A person who moves out of a country

Middle East Refugee crisis 2015:

In Syria, a civil war has raged since 2011 causing four million people to flee the country to temporary camps in Turkey, Jordan and Lebanon.

Thousands have made the dangerous journey across the Mediterranean with the loss of many lives. Some people travelled by land through Turkey and into Eastern Europe. An estimated 1.1 million migrants entered Germany in 2015

In March 2016, the European Union and Turkey signed a deal to give Turkey political and financial benefits in return for taking back migrants.

Economic migration into the UK:

Since 2004 over 1.5 million economic migrants have moved to the UK, two-thirds of whom are polish. Most migrants pay tax and work hard. Migrants can put pressure on services such as health and education.

16.8 Reducing the gap:

Investment: Many countries and TNCs invest money and expertise in LICs (to increase their profits) which support the LICs development by providing employment and income.

Chinese companies have invested billions of dollars in Africa, including investing in a power plant in Zimbabwe and railway constructing in Sudan.

There are many benefits, but people think it is exploiting Africa’s resources in order to benefit China’s own economy.

Industrial Development: This brings employment, higher incomes and opportunities to invest in housing, education and infrastructure. The population then becomes better educated and healthier, which provides more opportunities to invest in industries and business. This circular process is called the multiplier effect.

Tourism: Countries with tropical beaches, spectacular landscapes or abundant wildlife have become tourist destinations. This has led to investment and increased income from abroad, which can be used for improved education, infrastructure and housing. Tourism can generate a lot of income but is vulnerable in times of economic recession.

16.9 Aid and Intermediate Technology:

Aid: Aid is when a country or non-governmental organization donates resources to another country to help it develop or improve people’s lives. In 2013, Pakistan received £338 million from the UK. It was spent mainly on education and to reduce hunger and poverty.

Aid can take the form of:


-Emergency Supplies

-Food or Technology

-Specialist Skills

Aid can reduce the development gap by:

-Enabling countries to invest in development projects such as roads

-Focusing on health care, education and services at a local scale.

-Only aid that is long-term and freely given can really address the development gap.

Goat Aid from Oxfam: This was set up to help African families to buy a goat, which produces milk and meat. This helps to generate food and income and builds community spirit.

Intermediate Technology: Intermediate Technology is sustainable and appropriate to the needs, knowledge and wealth of local people. It takes the form of small-scale projects.

One such project is at Adis Nifas in Ethiopia where a small dam was built, creating a reservoir close to fields for irrigation.

The benefits of using intermediate technology at the Adis Nifas dam:

-Used and still uses intermediate technology to build and run a small dam

-Used local building materials

-Provided local employment

-Used local tools and knowledge

-The irrigated land provides food for the villagers








16.10 fair trade:

Rich countries protect their trade using two main systems:

-Tariffs are taxes paid on imports, making imported goods more expensive and locally produced more attractive

-Quotas are limits on the quantity of goods, usually primary products that can be imported.

What is free trade?

Free trade is when countries do not change tariffs and have quotas. This has the potential to benefit the world’s poorest countries.

Subsidies are a barrier to free trade. Rich countries can afford to pay subsidies to farmers, so their products are cheaper than those produced by poorer countries

There are advantages of joining a trading group for poor countries:

It encourages free trade between members

Members are able to get higher prices for their goods.

Fairtrade: Fairtrade is an international movement that sets standards for trade and helps to ensure that producers in poor countries to get a fair deal.

-The farmer gets a fair price and all the money from the sale of the crop

-Part of the price is invested in local community development projects

-Farming is done in an environmentally friendly way

-The product gains a stronger position in the global market

16.11 Debt Relief:

Many poor countries borrowed money to develop their economies and export more. This had led to debt crisis. But:

-Low commodity prices reduced the value of their exports

-High oil prices increased the price of imports

Which resulted in:

-Interest rates rising and their debt increased.

How can debt relief reduce the development gap?

Debt relief has helped poor countries invest in development projects, such as infrastructure.

Counties have used the money saved to provide services such as free education.

However, corrupt governments may keep the money for themselves



16.12 Tourism:

Tourism has helped raise the level of development in Jamaica and reduce the development gap.


In 2014, tourism contributed 24% of Jamaica’s GDP.

Income from tourism is $2 billion each year and taxes contribute further to the development of the country.


Tourism provides 200,000 jobs, either directly or indirectly.

Employment in tourism provides income which helps to boost the local economy.

Those in employment learn new skills


Tourism has led to a high level of investment on the north coast.

Improvements in roads and airports have been slower than other facilities

Some parts of the island remains isolated

Quality of life:

In the northern tourist areas of Montego Bay and Ocho Rios, wealthy Jamaican’s have a high standard of living.

However, large numbers of people live nearby in poor housing with inadequate to fresh water, health care and education

The Environment:

Conservation and landscaping projects provide job opportunities.

Community tourism and sustainable ecotourism is expanding in more regions.

Mass tourism can create environmental problems such as footpath erosion, excessive waste and harmful emissions.

17.1 Exploring Nigeria:

Year: Population: Annual Change % Fertility rate: Urban Population % Urban Population % of world pop
2015 182,201,962 2.71 5.74 48.10 87,680,500 2.63
1990 95,617,345 2.65 6.6 29.70 28,379,229 1.97


In 2014, Nigeria was the 21st economy in the world and it is still growing.

Nigeria supplies 2.7% of the world’s oil. Much of the country’s economic growth has been based on oil revenues.

It has developed a diverse economy, including financial services, telecommunications and media.

Nigeria is the fifth largest contributor to UN global peacekeeping missions.

Nigeria has one of the fastest-growing economies in Africa.

In 2014, it had Africa’s highest GDP and the third largest manufacturing sector.

It has the largest population of any African country

Nigeria has the highest farm output in Africa. A large proportion of people are employed in agriculture; most are subsistence farmers.

Nigeria has huge potential despite problems with internal corruption and lack of infrastructure.

71.2 Exploring Nigeria (Continued)

Political Context:

During the colonial period, Europeans exploited Africa’s resources and people. Nigeria was ruled by the UK as a colony. It became independent in 1960.

Political instability affected Nigeria’s development and led to widespread corruption.

Since 1999, it has had a stable government. Several countries are now starting to invest in Nigeria.

Social Context:

Nigeria is a multi-ethnic multi faith country – this is a strength, but has also been a source of conflict including a civil war between 1967 and 1970.

Recently, economic inequality between the Islamic north and Christian south of Nigeria has created new religious and ethnic tensions. This has created an unstable situation with a negative impact on the economy.

Cultural Context:

Nigerian music. For example, the musician Fela Kuti

Nigerian Cinema – Nollywood. This is the second largest industry in the world.

Well-known Nigerian writers include Wole Soyinka.

The Nigerian football team has won the African Cup of Nations three times.

Environmental Context:

Nigeria’s natural environment form a series of bands because of decreasing rainfall towards the north


-Jos Plateau – an upland region, which is wetter and cooler than surrounding savanna. Densely populated with farmland and some woodland.

-Tropical grassland used for grazing cattle. Crops such as cotton are grown.

-High temperatures and high annual rainfall. Mainly forest but also crops such as coca. Hard to keep cattle because of the tsetse fly.

17.3 Nigeria in the wider world:

Nigeria’s political links: Until 1960, Nigeria was part of the British Empire. Since independence, Nigeria has become a member of the British Commonwealth. Nigeria is also a leading member of African political and economic groups, and international organizations.

Nigeria’s Global Trading Relationships:

Imports: Refined petroleum from the EU and the USA: Cars from brazil and the USA. Telephones from china is a fast-growing import.

Exports: Crude and refined petroleum, natural gas, rubber, cocoa and cotton.

Crude oil: Crude oil dominates Nigeria’s exports. Until recently, the greatest demand for Nigerian oil was the USA. With the development of shale oil in the USA, demand for Nigerian oil has fallen. India is now Nigeria’s biggest customer.

Agriculture: Australia (30%) and Indonesia (15%) are the biggest customers for Nigerian cotton. Only two other West African Countries are significant trading partners – Ghana and Ivory Coast.

17.4 Balancing a changing industrial structure:

Nigeria’s sources of income: Traditionally, primary products such as cocoa and cotton were Nigeria’s main source of income. Today oil accounts for 95% of Nigeria’s export earnings.

Dos Nigeria have balanced economy?

The growth of communications, retail and finance in the service (tertiary) sector. Employment in agriculture (primary sector) has fallen, due to increasing use of farm machinery and better pay and conditions elsewhere. Industrialization and economic growth has increased employment in oil production, manufacturing and other industries (Secondary sector)

Nigeria’s growing manufacturing sector:  Manufacturing involves making products from raw materials. Manufacturing growth has been hindered by the dependence on the export of raw materials. Today manufacturing accounts for 10% of Nigeria’s GDP




How is manufacturing affecting economic development?

-Regular paid work gives people a more secure income. This means there is a large home market for products manufactured in Nigeria, such as cars.

-Manufacturing industries stimulate growth for other companies, such as those supplying parts to make cars.

-More people are employed, so revenues from taxes increases.

-A thriving industrial sector attracts foreign investment

-Oil processing has led to the growth of chemical industries

-This growth is an example of the multiplier effect.

 17.5 The impacts of transnational corporations:

Advantages and disadvantages of TNCs in Nigeria?

Advantages: Disadvantages:
Companies provide employment and the development Local workers are sometimes poorly paid
Investment by companies in local infrastructure Working conditions are sometimes very poor
Other local companies benefit from increased orders Management jobs often go to foreign employees
Valuable export revenues are earned. Much of the profit goes abroad


Shell Oil Case study:

Shell is one of the world’s largest oil companies. It has extracted oil from the Niger Delta since 1958, with some controversy


-It has made major contributions in taxes

-It has provided direct employment for 65,000 Nigerian workers

-It has provided 250,000 jobs in related industries

-91% of all Shell contracts have been placed with Nigerian companies


-Oil spills have caused water pollution and soil degradation, damaging agriculture and fishing industries

-Frequent oil flares send toxic fumes into the air

-Oil theft and sabotage cost TNCs and the government billions of dollars every year.



17.6 The impacts of international aid:

Types of aid:

Aid can be provided by individuals, charities, NGOs, governments and international organizations.

Emergency aid: -Following a natural disaster or conflict

Development aid: -long-term support aimed at improving quality of life

Short-term: emergency help usually in response to a natural disaster

Long-term: Sustainable aid that seeks to improve resilience. For examples, wells to reduce the effects of drought

Bilateral: aid from one country to another, which is often tied.

Tied: aid may be given with certain countries

Multilateral: richer governments give money to an international organization. For example, the world bank, which then redistributes to poorer countries.

Voluntary: money donated by the public and distributed by NGOs such as Oxfam.

What is the impact of aid in Nigeria?

The most successful aid projects are community-based, supported by small charities and NGOs. Aid has been used to benefit Nigeria in several ways:

In 2014, the World Bank approved a $500 million load to fund development projects and provide loans to businesses

Aid from the USA helps to protect people against the spread of AIDs/HIV

The Community Care in Nigeria project provides support for orphans

Nets for Life (an NGO) provides education on malaria prevention and distributes anti-mosquito nets

17.7 Managing Environmental Issues:

The effect of economic growth on the environment:

Industrial growth: In Kano and Lagos, industrial pollutants go directly into water channels. They are harmful to people and ecosystems. Industry emits poisonous gases that can cause respiratory and heart problems. 70-80% of Nigeria’s factors have been destroyed through factors such as agriculture, urban expansion and industrial development.

Urban growth: Waste disposal is a major issue. Traffic congestion leads to high levels of exhaust emissions. The development of Abuja has resulted in areas of rich natural vegetation being replaced by concrete.

Commercial farming and deforestation: There is water pollution due to chemicals, soil erosion and silting of river channels. Many species have disappeared because of deforestation

Mining and oil extraction: Tin mining led to soil erosion, Local water supplies were polluted with toxic chemicals. Oil spills can cause fires, sending C02 and other harmful gases into the atmosphere.


17.8 Quality of life in Nigeria

As a country’s economy develops, the quality of life of ordinary people should improve:

Higher disposable income to spend (e.g on schooling)

Improvements to infrastructure, such as roads.

Better access to safe water and sanitation.

Improved access to a better diet means higher productivity.

Better-quality health care.

Reliable electricity supplies.

Reliable, better-paid jobs in manufacturing or services.

Has it all been good news?

Many people in Nigeria are still poor

The gap between rich and poor has become wider

Corruption has been a major factor and the oil wealth was not used to diversify the economy

Nigeria’s over-dependence on oil could become a problem in the future

Will people’s quality of life continue to improve?

60% of Nigerians live in poverty. If their quality of life is to be improved the following challenges must be met:

-Political – there is a need for continuing stable government to encourage inward investment

-Environmental – there are threats of disease spread by the tsetse fly, desertification and pollution by oil spills.

-Social – historical distrust remains between tribal groups. Kidnappings by the militant group Boko Haram spread fear among Nigerians and potential investors.


18.1 Changes in the UK economy:

In 1800, Most people worked in farming or mining (primary sector)

In 1900, During the Industrial Revolution people made steel, ships or textiles (manufacturing or secondary sector)

In 2006, Jobs in research, information technology and the media (quaternary sector) have developed since the 1980s. A big shift to the service (Tertiary) sector

What are the causes of economic change in the UK?

De-industrialization: is the decline traditional industries such as manufacturing. This has happened because:

-Machines and technology have replaced many people

-Other countries (e.g china) can produce cheaper goods because labour is less expensive

Globalization: is the growth and spread of ideas around the world:

-Many people now work on global brands in the quaternary sector, e.g IT

-Increased world trade and cheaper imported products have contributed to the decline in UK manufacturing

Government Polices:

1945-79: The government created state-run industries such as British Rail. Government money ‘propped up’ unprofitable industries

1970-2010: State-run industries sold to private shareholders. This is called privatization. Many older industries closed down. New private companies brought innovation and change.

2010 onwards: ‘Rebalancing’ the economy by relying less on service industries. Policies have included: Improvements to transport. More investment in manufacturing. Encouraging global firms to locate in UK.

18.2 A post-industrial economy:

A post-industrial economy is where manufacturing industry is replaced by growth in the service and quaternary sectors. This happened in the UK from the 1970s.

Development of information technology: The use of information technology is a key factor in the UK’s move to a post-industrial economy:

-Internet access enables people to work from home.

-Over 1.3 million work in the IT sector

-The UK is one of the world’s leading digital economies

Service Industries and Finance:

The UK service sector has grown rapidly since the 1970s. Today it contributes over 79% of the UK’s GDP.

-Finance is an important part of the service sector.

-The UK is the world’s leading centre for financial services.

-The financial services sector accounts for about 10% of the UK’s GDP.


The UK research sector employs over 60,000 highly qualified people and is estimated to contributed over £3 billion to the UK economy. This sector likely to be one of the UK’s economy main growth areas in the future.

18.3 UK science and business parks

A Science park is a group of scientific and technical knowledge-based businesses located on a single site.

University of Southampton Science Park:

 Southampton Science Park includes one hundred small science and innovation businesses including Fibrecore and PhotonStar


-Excellent Transport links – close to M3, Southampton international airport and rail links

-Excellent links with the University

-Attractive location with green areas

A business park is an area of land occupied by a cluster of businesses. They are usually located on the edges of towns where:

-Land is cheaper and more available

-Access is better with less congestion

-Businesses can benefit from working together

Cobalt Business Park, Newcastle-upon-Tyne:

Cobalt park is the UK’s largest business park, with support facilities including retail outlets and a fitness centre. The park is next to the A19, close to A1 and 20 minutes from the international airport. Businesses locating in Cobalt Park qualify for governmental assistance.








18.4 Environmental impacts of industry:


Manufacturing plants can look full and affect the visual effect of the landscape.  

-Industrial processes and waste products can cause air, water and soil pollution.

-The transport or raw materials and manufacturing products increases levels of air pollution

How can industrial development be more sustainable?

-Care in design can reduce the visual impact.

-Technology can be used to reduce harmful emissions

-Desulphurization can remove harmful gases

-Heavy fines can be imposed when pollution incidents occur

Quarrying in the UK:


-Destroys natural habitats

-Pollute water courses

-scar landscapes

Making quarrying more sustainable:

-There are strict controls on blasting, removal of dust from roads and landscaping

-Recycling is encouraged

-Companies are expected to restore or improve a quarry after it has been used

Case study: Torr Quarry, Somerset:

Torr Quarry is a limestone quarry in the Mendip Hills. It employs over 100 people and contributes more than £15 million towards the local economy each year. Torr Quarry is an example of how modern industrial development can be more environmentally sustainable.

-The quarry is being restored to create wildlife lakes

-200 Acres of the site have already been landscaped.

-Regular monitoring of noise, vibration, dust and water quality

-Rail transport of quarried rock minimizes the impact on local roads and villages





18.5 Changing rural landscapes in the UK:

An Area of population growth: South Cambridgeshire:


-The Population of 150,000 is increasing, due to migration into the area

-Most migrants come from Cambridge and other parts of the UK; many arrive from Eastern Europe.

-The Proportion of people aged 65 or over is growing

Social Effects:

-80% car ownership leads to increased traffic on narrow roads

-Housing developments on the edges of villages can lead to a reduction in community spirit.

-Young people cannot afford the high cost of houses and move away

Economic Effects:

-A reduction in agricultural employment as farmers sell land for housing.

-Lack of affordable housing

-High demand leads to high petrol prices.

-Increased population puts pressure on services

An area of population decline: The Outer Hebrides:


-The population has declined by more than 50% since 1901

-With limited employment, young people have moved away

Social Effects:

-The expected fall in the number of children may result in school closures

-An increasingly ageing population has fewer young people to support them.

Economic effects:

-Services are closing

-Most small farms can provide work for two days a week

-There has been an increase in tourism but the current infrastructure cannot support the scale of tourism needed to provide an alternative source of income.





18.6 Changing transport infrastructure (1)

Road Improvements: The 2014 ‘Road Investment Strategy’ includes:

-100 new road schemes by 202

-1300 new lane miles added to motorways and trunk roads

-extra lanes added to turn main motorways into ‘smart motorways’

New road schemes will create thousands of construction jobs and boost local and regional economies.

South-west ‘super highway’:

A £2 billion road-widening project will take place on the A303, converting the route to dual carriageway will create a ‘super highway’ to Plymouth and beyond

Railway Improvements: There are plans to stimulate economic growth in the north of the UK by:

-Improving trans-Pennine rail links reducing journey times by up to 15 minutes

-HS2 – a planned high-speed rail line to connect London with Birmingham, Sheffield, Leeds and Manchester. It is controversial as the route passes through countryside and close to many homes

London’s Crossrail:

Crossrail is a new railway across London that links Reading and Heathrow, to Shenfield and Abbey wood:

-Will reduce journey times across London

-It will bring an additional 1.5 million people within 45 minutes commuting distance of London’s key business districts.

Changing Transport Infrastructure (2)

Developing the UK’s ports:

About 32 million passengers travel through UK ports each year. Ports employ around 120,000 people. Private companies run many ports and invest heavily in infrastructure, often with government assistance.


A new container terminal is being constructed at the Port of Liverpool, known as ‘Liverpool2’:

The project will more than double the port’s capacity to over 1.5 million containers a year. Phase 1 Opened in 2016. When complete, the new terminal will:

-Create thousands of jobs in the north-west

-boost the regional economy

-Reduce the amount of freight traffic on the roads


Airport Developments:

Airports create vital global links

-They provide thousands of jobs

-They also boost economic growth both regionally and nationally

Expanding London’s airports:

In 2015, a government report recommended a third new runway at Heathrow. The cost would be 18.6 billion. The report recommended financial support for soundproofing homes and schools and a ban on night-time flights

Advantage: This was predicted to create more jobs and make more money for the UK.

Disadvantage: People living nearby are concerned about the noise and air pollution from planes.

18.8 The north-south divide:

During the industrial revolution, the UK’s growth was centered on coalfields. Heavy industries and engineering in northern England, wales and Scotland.

Since the 1970s, many industries have declined, reducing prosperity in those areas

London and the south east developed rapidly due to a fast-growing service sector

How can regional strategies address the issue?

Local Enterprise Partnerships:

LEPs are voluntary partnerships between local authorities and businesses. Their aim is to identify business needs and encourage companies to invest in order to boost the local economy and create jobs.

Lancashire LEP:

-Promote new businesses and create 50,000 new jobs by 2023

-Improve transport with £20 million investment

-Extend superfast broadband across 97% of the region

-Create 6000 high-skilled jobs in Enterprise Zones at Samlesbury and Warton

Enterprise Zones:

The aim of Enterprise Zones is to encourage new businesses and jobs. The government supports businesses in Enterprise Zones by:

-Providing a business rate discount

-Ensuring the provision of superfast broadband

-Creating simpler planning regulations


18.9 The UK in the wider world (1)


The UK’s most important trading links are with the EU. Goods can be traded between member states without tariffs. This may change when the UK leaves the EU

The USA is an important historic trading partner

There has been a recent increase in trade with China.


London Heathrow is one of the busiest airports in the world

There are important transport links between the UK and mainland Europe by the Channel Tunnel and sea ferries

Electronic Communication:

-99% of internet traffic passes along a network of submarine high-power cables

-Connections are concentrated between the UK and USA

-There is a further concentration in the Far East

-A project known as Arctic Fibre is due to connect London and Tokyo.


The global importance of the English Language has given the UK strong cultural links with many parts of the world

-Music, books and films from the UK are accessed all over the world

-Migrants have brought their own culture to the UK, such as food and festivals

18.10 The UK in the wider world (2)

How has the EU affected the UK?

-Financial support for farmers and disadvantaged regions in the UK

-There are EU laws and controls on crime, pollution and consumers’ rights

-Goods, services, capital and labour can move freely between member states and encourage trade

-In 2013, about 40% of total UK immigrants were from the EU

What are the UK’s links with the Commonwealth?

The commonwealth provides advice and support to member countries on a range of issues including human rights and social and economic development. There are important trading and cultural links between the UK and the Commonwealth countries. There are also sporting connections, such as the Commonwealth Games.




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